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Past Work
Silicon Info


Technical Background 

Ted Ciszek has worked 50 years in the areas of silicon crystal growth, characterization, defect and impurity studies, and materials research - most recently as a private consultant after retiring as Principal Scientist and group leader for the Silicon Materials Research Task at NREL, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, in Golden, Colorado.  He joined NREL (then SERI) in 1978, after spending 6 years each with  Dow Corning (at what is now HSC, the Hemlock Semiconductor Corporation) in Hemlock, Michigan and IBM in East Fishkill, NY.  At Dow Corning, he researched dislocation-free float-zone (FZ) Si growth and electron-beam pedestal growth,  and grew the first EFG Si ribbons.  He holds over 170 technical papers and 25 patents on crystal growth, electronic and superconductor materials, and characterization.  He is now consulting on silicon materials.

Education B.S. Physics (1964) Case Institute of Technology; M.S. Physics (1966) Iowa State University.
Professional Activities AACG (held posts as VP, Executive Committee member, meeting chairman); APS; ECS (Electronics Div. editor, J. Electrochem. Cos. to 1989). 
Honors 3 NASA Certificates of Recognition for PV materials work; IBM Invention Achievement Award; SERI 1981 Outstanding Achievement Award; 1990 DOE Peer Review Award; NREL 2002 Hubbard Award for "exceptional leadership and sustained, world-class research contributions in the successful development of silicon crystal growth"; Member Tau Beta Pi and Sigma Xi; Technical Advisory Committee member for several major EPRI/DOE-funded research projects.

Major technical contributions:    

1967-72 Dow Corning Corporation:  Developed Perfx process for dislocation-free float-zoned silicon crystals.  Introduced [115] growth orientation for low surface-state charge density applications.  Invented silicon pedestal growth process with electron-beam heating.  Grew the first reported EFG silicon ribbons using a graphite capillary die.    
1972-78 IBM:  Developed the EFG/CAST technique for Si ribbon growth.  Invented shaped crystal growth from wettable projections.  Achieved in-situ melting and crack-free directional solidification of silicon in graphite crucibles.  Grew the first reported EFG silicon tubes.  Invented contiguous capillary coating technique for silicon sheet growth (early version of later S-web growth process).  Established a float-zone Si crystal growth laboratory.    
1978-2003 SERI/NREL:  Invented edge-supported pulling method for Si sheet growth (string ribbon).  Established laboratory facilities for silicon, compound semiconductor, and superconductor crystal growth, sheet  growth, and characterization (including x-ray topography and carrier lifetime).  Conducted silicon crystal growth for high-efficiency photovoltaics and achieved minority charge-carrier lifetimes >20 milliseconds.  Conducted numerous Si defect and impurity studies using FZ.  Grew thin-layer silicon LPE from metal solutions.  Invented semicontinuous electromagnetic casting EMC technique for silicon.  Devised new methods for CuInSe2 crystal growth and CuAgInGaSe solid solution crystal growth.   Grew single crystals, sheets, rods, and wires of the YBCO and BiSCCO high Tc superconductors.  Researched several new PV Si feedstock methods.  Served as Principal Investigator for NREL's small, in-house crystalline silicon R&D program.    

Patents and publications


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This page was last updated on June 19, 2016